(Italian over Italian, Italian over English, English over Italian, English over English, etc)
- transcribing sound
- translation (if the subtitle to synchronize is a different language)
Adaptation for those who hear (subtitling in any language on any soundtrack) is basically different from the one for the deaf. Besides a shorter appearance of subtitle on the screen, less attention is given to simple syntax. But it is natural to give every subtitle a meaningful phrase and to limit a sentence that carries over following subtitles, in the same way.
Naturally, the attention given to the sound details that the deaf cannot perceive, and the names of a character speaking off stage, will not be included, etc.
Translating informal, spontaneous speech in written language, requires the capacity to integrate, interpret and, in some cases, correct the text from grammatical errors that give character information but could be prejudice or incomprehensive.
The subtitler identifies a series of characteristics to give the speech its right allocation.
In recapitulating, everything in a film that makes a film… text, direction, editing, places, characters, atmosphere, language characteristics, and style of speech. The subtitler’s style is such that it becomes the primary object of communication. Easy reading and specification of detail are of great importance.
In adapting a “film d’auteur” subtitler tries to maintain structure, quality, type of speech in original dialogue without losing its readability.